Editorial Article | Open Access

Chemical vapor deposited graphene synthesis with same-oriented hexagon domains

Viet Phuong Pham*

Author Affiliations

*Corresponding author: Viet Phuong Pham
Center for Multidimensional Carbon Materials, Institute for Basic Science, Ulsan 44919, Republic of Korea; E-mail: pvphuong85@ibs.re.kr

Received: November 7th, 2017; Accepted: November 13th, 2017; Published: November 22nd, 2017

Eng Press. 2017; 1(1): 39-42. doi: 10.28964/EngPress-1-107

Ⓒ 2017 Copyright by Pham VP. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).

Graphene have been regarded as ideal material for electronics and optoelectronics owing to their exotic electrical properties and their ability to integrate with current top-down device fabrication technology.1-11 Since the beginning of the 21st century, the interest in graphene materials has drastically increased, which is apparent in the number of annual publications on graphene Figure 1.

Figure 1: (a) Publications of Graphene from 2000 to 2017. Source: ISI Web of Science. (b) Diagram of general synthesis mechanism of chemical vapor deposited-graphene: transport and reaction processes. (b) is reproduced with permission.5 Copyright 2011, Freund Publishing.

Until now, various strategies, including chemical vapour deposition (CVD),12 liquid and mechanical exfoliation from graphite,13-15 epitaxial synthesis on crystal substrate,16-19 or solutionbased processes on graphene oxides.20-26 Have been investigated for obtaining graphene layers.In particular, recent advances in CVD synthesis have successfully led to large-scale graphene production on metal substrates.12,27-30 Because graphene synthesis relies on the thermal decomposition of carbon resources, the growth rate is usually low and size of the graphene domain is small, resulting in growth of defective graphene layer. Until now, many challenges in large-area high-quality graphene production is ahead.1-4,6,12,13 However, the single-crystal graphene layer has a limited size and often the quality is less satisfactory owing to the imperfect alignment of individual graphene islands.

CVD growth of graphene is a chemical process for the formation of single layer or few layer graphene on an arbitrary substrate by exposing the substrate to the gas-phase precursors at controlled reaction conditions.31 Owing to the versatile nature of CVD, intricately mixed homogeneous gas-phase and heterogeneous surface reactions are involved.32 In general, as the partial pressure and/or temperature in the reaction substances are increased, homogeneous gas-phase reactions and the resulting homogeneous nucleation become significant.32 To grow a high-quality graphene layer, this homogeneous nucleation needs be minimized.32 A general mechanism for CVD-based graphene growth on catalytic metal substrates, for the growth of uniform and highly crystalline graphene layer on the surface, includes eight steps as follow: (1) mass transport of the reactant, (2) reaction of the film precursor, (3) diffusion of gas molecules, (4) adsorption of the precursor, (5) diffusion of the precursor into substrate, (6) surface reaction, (7) desorption of the product, and (8) removal of the by-product (Figure 1b).1-3

Here, a graphene synthesis strategy via CVD approach was carried out on Cu(111) foil (Figure 2a). By the precisely and sophisticatedly controlling the synthesis parameters such as carbon-gas source (hydrogen, methane) and inert gas precursor (argon), concentration, pressure, growth time, pre-annealing of copper foil, and hydrogen etching effect, etc. Consequently, the graphene with same-oriented domains has been synthesized successfully as SEM images shown in Figures 2b and 2c. Graphene synthesis with same-oriented hexagon domains is currently receiving huge attention from the 2D material research community. By discovering new synthesis technique for obtaining same-oriented graphene domains, the fabrication of a wide-range of various high performance graphene devices could be achieved a further improvement step. However, in order to obtain more advanced results, an in-depth understanding of the mechanism of graphene synthesis need more endeavor from the 2D material research community such as needing a much faster growth rate of graphene domains or how very ultra-smooth and very ultra-flat copper surface with the roughness lowering at pico-meter scale (10-12 m) can obtain.

Figure 2: (a) Chemical vapor deposited graphene synthesis. (b) Same-oriented grown graphene domains. (c) Large single-crystal graphene covered entirely copper foil surface.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This work is supported by research and development grant, Korea.

CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

There are no conflicts of interest to declare.

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Volume 1, Issue 1
November 2017
Pages 39-42

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